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The Cannons

Seán Cannon (* November in Galway) ist ein irischer Sänger und Gitarrist. Bekanntheit erlangte er vor allem durch seine Mitgliedschaft bei der Irish​. The Cannons Tickets für Konzerte im Rahmen der Tour Karten jetzt im Vorverkauf sichern für Irish Folk pur. weitere Infos. In der Kulturscheune in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt treten The Cannons am Samstag, Februar, ab Uhr im Rahmen der Reihe "Scheune.

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Seán Cannon (* November in Galway) ist ein irischer Sänger und Gitarrist. Bekanntheit erlangte er vor allem durch seine Mitgliedschaft bei der Irish​. The Cannons „Celtic Folk and more" Seit ist Seán Cannon die Stimme von THE DUBLINERS und damit eine lebende Legende des Irish. In der Kulturscheune in Salzgitter-Lebenstedt treten The Cannons am Samstag, Februar, ab Uhr im Rahmen der Reihe "Scheune.

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Fathullah Shirazi, a Persian inhabitant of India who worked for Akbar in the Mughal Empire , developed a volley gun in the 16th century. While there is evidence of cannon in Iran as early as they were not widespread.

The Javanese Majapahit Empire was arguably able to encompass much of modern-day Indonesia due to its unique mastery of bronze-smithing and use of a central arsenal fed by a large number of cottage industries within the immediate region.

Documentary and archeological evidence indicate that Arab traders introduced gunpowder, gonnes, muskets , blunderbusses , and cannon to the Javanese, Acehnese , and Batak via long established commercial trade routes around the early to mid 14th century.

Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-guns, known as cetbang or lantaka , was used widely by the Majapahit navy as well as by pirates and rival lords.

This event led to near universal use of the swivel-gun and cannon in the Nusantara archipelago. Cannon derived from cetbang can be found in Nusantara, among others were lantaka and lela.

Most lantakas were made of bronze and the earliest ones were breech-loaded. There is a trend toward muzzle-loading weapons during colonial times.

Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and even outgunned on occasion. Majapahit-era cetbang cannon were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Portuguese Malacca.

During this period, the iron , for manufacturing Javanese cannon was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia. The material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani Khorasan iron.

Duarte Barbosa ca. They make many one-pounder cannon cetbang or rentaka , long muskets, spingarde arquebus , schioppi hand cannon , Greek fire , guns cannon , and other fire-works.

Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery, and in the knowledge of using it. Cannon were used by the Ayutthaya Kingdom in during its invasion of the Khmer Empire.

Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.

The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. Imported from Arabia , and the wider Islamic world, the Adalites led by Ahmed ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi were the first African power to introduce cannon warfare to the African continent.

The conflict proved, through their use on both sides, the value of firearms such as the matchlock musket , cannon, and the arquebus over traditional weapons.

While previous smaller guns could burn down structures with fire, larger cannon were so effective that engineers were forced to develop stronger castle walls to prevent their keeps from falling.

By the 16th century, cannon were made in a great variety of lengths and bore diameters, but the general rule was that the longer the barrel, the longer the range.

Consequently, large amounts of gunpowder were needed to allow them to fire stone balls several hundred yards. Henry II of France opted for six sizes of cannon, [] but others settled for more; the Spanish used twelve sizes, and the English sixteen.

Instead of the finely ground powder used by the first bombards, powder was replaced by a "corned" variety of coarse grains.

This coarse powder had pockets of air between grains, allowing fire to travel through and ignite the entire charge quickly and uniformly. The end of the Middle Ages saw the construction of larger, more powerful cannon, as well as their spread throughout the world.

As they were not effective at breaching the newer fortifications resulting from the development of cannon, siege engines —such as siege towers and trebuchets —became less widely used.

However, wooden "battery-towers" took on a similar role as siege towers in the gunpowder age—such as that used at Siege of Kazan in , which could hold ten large-calibre cannon, in addition to 50 lighter pieces.

These new defences became known as bastion forts , after their characteristic shape which attempted to force any advance towards it directly into the firing line of the guns.

By the end of the 15th century, several technological advancements made cannon more mobile. Wheeled gun carriages and trunnions became common, and the invention of the limber further facilitated transportation.

Even with this many animals pulling, they still moved at a walking pace. Due to their relatively slow speed, and lack of organisation, and undeveloped tactics, the combination of pike and shot still dominated the battlefields of Europe.

Innovations continued, notably the German invention of the mortar , a thick-walled, short-barrelled gun that blasted shot upward at a steep angle.

Mortars were useful for sieges, as they could hit targets behind walls or other defences. Setting the bomb fuse was a problem.

This often resulted in the fuse being blown into the bomb, causing it to blow up as it left the mortar. Because of this, "double firing" was tried where the gunner lit the fuse and then the touch hole.

This, however, required considerable skill and timing, and was especially dangerous if the gun misfired, leaving a lighted bomb in the barrel.

Not until was it accidentally discovered that double-lighting was superfluous as the heat of firing would light the fuse. Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden emphasised the use of light cannon and mobility in his army, and created new formations and tactics that revolutionised artillery.

He discontinued using all 12 pounder—or heavier—cannon as field artillery, preferring, instead, to use cannon that could be handled by only a few men.

One obsolete type of gun, the "leatheren" was replaced by 4 pounder and 9 pounder demi-culverins.

These could be operated by three men, and pulled by only two horses. Gustavus Adolphus's army was also the first to use a cartridge that contained both powder and shot which sped up reloading, increasing the rate of fire.

Each regiment was assigned two pieces, though he often arranged them into batteries instead of distributing them piecemeal.

He used these batteries to break his opponent's infantry line, while his cavalry would outflank their heavy guns. At the Battle of Breitenfeld , in , Adolphus proved the effectiveness of the changes made to his army, by defeating Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly.

Although severely outnumbered, the Swedes were able to fire between three and five times as many volleys of artillery, and their infantry's linear formations helped ensure they didn't lose any ground.

Battered by cannon fire, and low on morale, Tilly's men broke ranks and fled. In England cannon were being used to besiege various fortified buildings during the English Civil War.

Nathaniel Nye is recorded as testing a Birmingham cannon in and experimenting with a saker in Around this time also came the idea of aiming the cannon to hit a target.

Gunners controlled the range of their cannon by measuring the angle of elevation, using a "gunner's quadrant.

It was only in the years prior to World War I that new works began to break radically away from his designs. By the end of the 18th century, principles long adopted in Europe specified the characteristics of the Royal Navy 's cannon, as well as the acceptable defects, and their severity.

The United States Navy tested guns by measuring them, firing them two or three times—termed "proof by powder"—and using pressurized water to detect leaks.

The carronade was adopted by the Royal Navy in ; the lower muzzle velocity of the round shot when fired from this cannon was intended to create more wooden splinters when hitting the structure of an enemy vessel, as they were believed to be more deadly than the ball by itself.

The guns were, therefore, easier to handle, and also required less than half as much gunpowder, allowing fewer men to crew them. As a result, the classification of Royal Navy vessels in this period can be misleading, as they often carried more cannon than were listed.

Cannon were crucial in Napoleon 's rise to power, and continued to play an important role in his army in later years. When over 25, royalists led by General Danican assaulted Paris, Paul Barras was appointed to defend the capital; outnumbered five to one and disorganised, the Republicans were desperate.

He ordered Joachim Murat to bring the guns from the Sablons artillery park; the Major and his cavalry fought their way to the recently captured cannon, and brought them back to Napoleon.

As the battlefield was muddy, recoil caused cannon to bury themselves into the ground after firing, resulting in slow rates of fire, as more effort was required to move them back into an adequate firing position; [] also, roundshot did not ricochet with as much force from the wet earth.

Eventually, the French ceased their assault, after taking heavy losses from the British cannon and musket fire. In the s and s, greater emphasis was placed on the accuracy of long-range gunfire, and less on the weight of a broadside.

The carronade, although initially very successful and widely adopted, disappeared from the Royal Navy in the s after the development of wrought-iron-jacketed steel cannon by William Armstrong and Joseph Whitworth.

Nevertheless, carronades were used in the American Civil War. Western cannon during the 19th century became larger, more destructive, more accurate, and could fire at longer range.

Another is the smoothbore pounder Napoleon , which originated in France in and was widely used by both sides in the American Civil War.

The practice of rifling —casting spiralling lines inside the cannon's barrel—was applied to artillery more frequently by , as it gave cannon projectiles gyroscopic stability, which improved their accuracy.

One of the earliest rifled cannon was the breech-loading Armstrong Gun —also invented by William Armstrong—which boasted significantly improved range, accuracy, and power than earlier weapons.

The projectile fired from the Armstrong gun could reportedly pierce through a ship's side and explode inside the enemy vessel, causing increased damage and casualties.

The superior cannon of the Western world brought them tremendous advantages in warfare. For example, in the First Opium War in China, during the 19th century, British battleships bombarded the coastal areas and fortifications from afar, safe from the reach of the Chinese cannon.

Similarly, the shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War of , was brought to a swift conclusion by shelling from British cruisers.

Cannon in the 20th and 21st centuries are usually divided into sub-categories and given separate names. Some of the most widely used types of modern cannon are howitzers, mortars, guns, and autocannon, although a few very large-calibre cannon , custom-designed, have also been constructed.

Nuclear artillery was experimented with, but was abandoned as impractical. According to NATO , the general role of artillery is to provide fire support, which is defined as "the application of fire, coordinated with the manoeuvre of forces to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy.

When referring to cannon, the term gun is often used incorrectly. In military usage, a gun is a cannon with a high muzzle velocity and a flat trajectory , useful for hitting the sides of targets such as walls, [] as opposed to howitzers or mortars, which have lower muzzle velocities, and fire indirectly, lobbing shells up and over obstacles to hit the target from above.

By the early 20th century, infantry weapons had become more powerful, forcing most artillery away from the front lines. Furthermore, their shells carried more explosives than those of guns, and caused considerably less barrel wear.

The German army had the advantage here as they began the war with many more howitzers than the French. The Second World War sparked new developments in cannon technology.

Among them were sabot rounds , hollow-charge projectiles, and proximity fuses , all of which increased the effectiveness of cannon against specific target.

Although widely used in naval warfare, and in anti-air guns, both the British and Americans feared unexploded proximity fuses would be reverse engineered leading to them limiting its use in continental battles.

During the Battle of the Bulge , however, the fuses became known as the American artillery's "Christmas present" for the German army because of their effectiveness against German personnel in the open, when they frequently dispersed attacks.

By the end of the war, 17 pounders had proven much more effective against German tanks, and 32 pounders had entered development. Despite being designed to fire at trajectories with a steep angle of descent, howitzers can be fired directly , as was done by the 11th Marine Regiment at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir , during the Korean War.

Two field batteries fired directly upon a battalion of Chinese infantry; the Marines were forced to brace themselves against their howitzers, as they had no time to dig them in.

The Chinese infantry took heavy casualties, and were forced to retreat. The tendency to create larger calibre cannon during the World Wars has reversed since.

The United States Army , for example, sought a lighter, more versatile howitzer, to replace their ageing pieces.

As it could be towed, the M was selected to be the successor to the World War II—era cannon used at the time, and entered service in Although land-based artillery such as the M are powerful, long-ranged, and accurate, naval guns have not been neglected, despite being much smaller than in the past, and, in some cases, having been replaced by cruise missiles.

The AGS's barrels will be water cooled, and will fire 10 rounds per minute, per gun. The combined firepower from both turrets will give a Zumwalt -class destroyer the firepower equivalent to 18 conventional M howitzers.

Autocannons have an automatic firing mode, similar to that of a machine gun. They have mechanisms to automatically load their ammunition, and therefore have a higher rate of fire than artillery, often approaching, or, in the case of rotary autocannons , even surpassing the firing rate of a machine gun.

Machine guns in contrast are usually too small to use explosive ammunition. Most nations use rapid-fire cannon on light vehicles, replacing a more powerful, but heavier, tank gun.

Autocannons may be capable of a very high rate of fire, but ammunition is heavy and bulky, limiting the amount carried.

The typical rate of fire for a modern autocannon ranges from 90 to 1, rounds per minute. Systems with multiple barrels, such as a rotary autocannon, can have rates of fire of more than several thousand rounds per minute.

Autocannons are often found in aircraft, where they replaced machine guns and as shipboard anti-aircraft weapons, as they provide greater destructive power than machine guns.

The first documented installation of a cannon on an aircraft was on the Voisin Canon in , displayed at the Paris Exposition that year.

By World War I, all of the major powers were experimenting with aircraft mounted cannon; however their low rate of fire and great size and weight precluded any of them from being anything other than experimental.

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We are The Cannons. Send Message. We are here to help! The Book of Deuteronomy includes a prohibition against adding or subtracting , which might apply to the book itself i.

The Book of Nehemiah suggests that the priest-scribe Ezra brought the Torah back from Babylon to Jerusalem and the Second Temple 8—9 around the same time period.

The Great Assembly , also known as the Great Synagogue, was, according to Jewish tradition, an assembly of scribes, sages, and prophets, in the period from the end of the Biblical prophets to the time of the development of Rabbinic Judaism, marking a transition from an era of prophets to an era of Rabbis.

They lived in a period of about two centuries ending c. Among the developments in Judaism that are attributed to them are the fixing of the Jewish Biblical canon [source required], including the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther, and the Twelve Minor Prophets; the introduction of the triple classification of the oral Torah , dividing its study into the three branches of midrash , halakot , and aggadot ; the introduction of the Feast of Purim ; and the institution of the prayer known as the Shemoneh 'Esreh as well as the synagogal prayers, rituals, and benedictions.

It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law , ethics , philosophy, customs, and history. The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah c.

There are numerous citations of Sirach within the Talmud, even though the book was not ultimately accepted into the Hebrew canon.

The Talmud is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is often quoted in other rabbinic literature. Certain groups of Jews, such as the Karaites , do not accept the oral Law as it is codified in the Talmud and only consider the Tanakh to be authoritative.

The rest of the Ethiopian Jewish canon is considered to be of secondary importance. The latter three patriarchal testaments are distinct to this scriptural tradition.

Another version of the Torah, in the Samaritan alphabet , also exists. The Samaritan Pentateuch's relationship to the Masoretic Text is still disputed.

Some differences are minor, such as the ages of different people mentioned in genealogy, while others are major, such as a commandment to be monogamous, which only appears in the Samaritan version.

More importantly, the Samaritan text also diverges from the Masoretic in stating that Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Gerizim —not Mount Sinai —and that it is upon this mountain Gerizim that sacrifices to God should be made—not in Jerusalem.

Scholars nonetheless consult the Samaritan version when trying to determine the meaning of text of the original Pentateuch, as well as to trace the development of text-families.

Some scrolls among the Dead Sea scrolls have been identified as proto-Samaritan Pentateuch text-type. Samaritans consider the Torah to be inspired scripture, but do not accept any other parts of the Bible—probably a position also held by the Sadducees.

There is a Samaritan Book of Joshua ; however, this is a popular chronicle written in Arabic and is not considered to be scripture.

Other non-canonical Samaritan religious texts include the Memar Markah Teaching of Markah and the Defter Prayerbook —both from the 4th century or later.

The apostles did not leave a defined set of scriptures ; instead the canon of both the Old Testament and the New Testament developed over time.

Different denominations recognize different lists of books as canonical, following various church councils and the decisions of leaders of various churches.

For mainstream Pauline Christianity growing from proto-orthodox Christianity in pre-Nicene times which books constituted the Christian biblical canons of both the Old and New Testament was generally established by the 5th century, despite some scholarly disagreements, [23] for the ancient undivided Church the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, before the East—West Schism.

The Catholic canon was set at the Council of Rome , [24] the same Council commissioned Jerome to compile and translate those canonical texts into the Latin Vulgate Bible.

In the wake of the Protestant Reformation, the Council of Trent affirmed the Vulgate as the official Catholic Bible in order to address changes Martin Luther made in his recently completed German translation which was based on the Hebrew language Tanakh in addition to the original Greek of the component texts.

The Synod of Jerusalem established additional canons that are widely accepted throughout the Orthodox Church. Various forms of Jewish Christianity persisted until around the fifth century, and canonicalized very different sets of books, including Jewish—Christian gospels which have been lost to history.

These and many other works are classified as New Testament apocrypha by Pauline denominations. The Old and New Testament canons did not develop independently of each other and most primary sources for the canon specify both Old and New Testament books.

The Apostles did not otherwise leave a defined set of new scriptures ; instead, the New Testament developed over time.

Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christian communities. The Pauline epistles were circulating in collected forms by the end of the 1st century AD.

Marcion of Sinope was the first Christian leader in recorded history though later considered heretical to propose and delineate a uniquely Christian canon [27] c.

AD This included 10 epistles from St. Paul , as well as a version of the Gospel of Luke , which today is known as the Gospel of Marcion.

By doing this, he established a particular way of looking at religious texts that persists in Christian thought today.

After Marcion, Christians began to divide texts into those that aligned well with the "canon" measuring stick of accepted theological thought and those that promoted heresy.

This played a major role in finalizing the structure of the collection of works called the Bible.

It has been proposed that the initial impetus for the proto-orthodox Christian project of canonization flowed from opposition to the list produced by Marcion.

A four-gospel canon the Tetramorph was asserted by Irenaeus in the following quote: "It is not possible that the gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are.

For, since there are four-quarters of the earth in which we live, and four universal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the 'pillar and ground' of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life, it is fitting that she should have four pillars breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh Therefore the gospels are in accord with these things For the living creatures are quadriform and the gospel is quadriform These things being so, all who destroy the form of the gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those [I mean] who represent the aspects of the gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer.

By the early 3rd century, Christian theologians like Origen of Alexandria may have been using—or at least were familiar with—the same 27 books found in modern New Testament editions, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of some of the writings see also Antilegomena.

Origen's canon included all of the books in the current New Testament canon except for four books: James , 2nd Peter , and the 2nd and 3rd epistles of John.

He also included the Shepherd of Hermas which was later rejected. The religious scholar Bruce Metzger described Origen's efforts, saying "The process of canonization represented by Origen proceeded by way of selection, moving from many candidates for inclusion to fewer.

In his Easter letter of , Patriarch Athanasius of Alexandria gave a list of exactly the same books that would become the New Testament —27 book—proto-canon, [35] and used the phrase "being canonized" kanonizomena in regard to them.

However, from this canon, he omitted the Book of Esther. Athanasius [37] recorded Alexandrian scribes around preparing Bibles for Constans.

Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles.

Those codices contain almost a full version of the Septuagint ; Vaticanus is only lacking 1—3 Maccabees and Sinaiticus is lacking 2—3 Maccabees, 1 Esdras , Baruch and Letter of Jeremiah.

There is no evidence among the canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon , however, Jerome , in his Prologue to Judith , makes the claim that the Book of Judith was "found by the Nicene Council to have been counted among the number of the Sacred Scriptures".

The Eastern Churches had, in general, a weaker feeling than those in the West for the necessity of making sharp delineations with regard to the canon.

They were more conscious of the gradation of spiritual quality among the books that they accepted for example, the classification of Eusebius, see also Antilegomena and were less often disposed to assert that the books which they rejected possessed no spiritual quality at all.

For example, the Trullan Synod of — , which Pope Sergius I in office — rejected [41] see also Pentarchy , endorsed the following lists of canonical writings: the Apostolic Canons c.

Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac , Armenian , Georgian , Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences, yet five of these Churches are part of the same communion and hold the same theological beliefs.

The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition. Most of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament are found in the Syriac, and the Wisdom of Sirach is held to have been translated from the Hebrew and not from the Septuagint.

Pusey d. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Council of Carthage and also the Council of Carthage Augustine — , who regarded the canon as already closed.

Augustine of Hippo declared without qualification that one is to "prefer those that are received by all Catholic Churches to those which some of them do not receive" On Christian Doctrines 2.

In the same passage, Augustine asserted that these dissenting churches should be outweighed by the opinions of "the more numerous and weightier churches", which would include Eastern Churches, the prestige of which Augustine stated moved him to include the Book of Hebrews among the canonical writings, though he had reservation about its authorship.

Philip Schaff says that "the council of Hippo in , and the third according to another reckoning the sixth council of Carthage in , under the influence of Augustine, who attended both, fixed the catholic canon of the Holy Scriptures, including the Apocrypha of the Old Testament, This decision of the transmarine church however, was subject to ratification; and the concurrence of the Roman see it received when Innocent I and Gelasius I A.

This canon remained undisturbed till the sixteenth century, and was sanctioned by the council of Trent at its fourth session. Augustine , who regarded the canon as already closed.

Pope Damasus I 's Council of Rome in if the Decretum issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above. In a letter c. In the 5th century the East too, with a few exceptions, came to accept the Book of Revelation and thus came into harmony on the matter of the New Testament canon.

As the canon crystallised, non-canonical texts fell into relative disfavour and neglect. Before the Protestant Reformation , there was the Council of Florence — During the life, and with the approval of this council, Eugenius IV issued several Bulls, or decrees, with a view to restore the Oriental schismatic bodies to communion with Rome, and according to the common teaching of theologians these documents are infallible statements of doctrine.

The "Decretum pro Jacobitis" contains a complete list of the books received by the Church as inspired, but omits, perhaps advisedly, the terms canon and canonical.

The Council of Florence therefore taught the inspiration of all the Scriptures, but did not formally pass on their canonicity. It was not until the Protestant Reformers began to insist upon the supreme authority of Scripture alone the doctrine of sola scriptura that it became necessary to establish a dogmatic canon.

Martin Luther — moved seven Old Testament books Tobit, Judith, 1—2 Maccabees, Book of Wisdom, Sirach, and Baruch into a section he called the " Apocrypha , that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read".

Luther removed the books of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation from the canon partially because some were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola scriptura and sola fide , [65] [ failed verification ] while defenders of Luther cite previous scholarly precedent and support as the justification for his marginalization of certain books, [66] including 2 Maccabees [67] Luther's smaller canon was not fully accepted in Protestantism, though apocryphal books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day.

All of these apocrypha are called anagignoskomena by the Eastern Orthodox per the Synod of Jerusalem. The Anglican Communion accepts "the Apocrypha for instruction in life and manners, but not for the establishment of doctrine", [68] and many "lectionary readings in The Book of Common Prayer are taken from the Apocrypha", with these lessons being "read in the same ways as those from the Old Testament".

In light of Martin Luther 's demands, the Council of Trent on 8 April approved the present Catholic Bible canon, which includes the Deuterocanonical Books , and the decision was confirmed by an anathema by vote 24 yea, 15 nay, 16 abstain.

Beyond these books, the Sixto-Clementine Vulgate contained in the Appendix several books considered as apocryphal by the council: Prayer of Manasseh , 3 Esdras , and 4 Esdras.

Several Protestant confessions of faith identify the 27 books of the New Testament canon by name, including the French Confession of Faith , [75] the Belgic Confession , and the Westminster Confession of Faith The Belgic Confession [77] and Westminster Confession named the 39 books in the Old Testament and, apart from the aforementioned New Testament books, expressly rejected the canonicity of any others.

The Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord of declared that the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures comprised the Old and New Testaments alone.

Various books that were never canonized by any church, but are known to have existed in antiquity, are similar to the New Testament and often claim apostolic authorship, are known as the New Testament apocrypha.

Some of these writings have been cited as scripture by early Christians, but since the fifth century a widespread consensus has emerged limiting the New Testament to the 27 books of the modern canon.

Other traditions, while also having closed canons, may not be able to point to an exact year in which their canons were complete.

The following tables reflect the current state of various Christian canons. Among Aramaic speakers, the Targum was also widely used.

All of the major Christian traditions accept the books of the Hebrew protocanon in its entirety as divinely inspired and authoritative, in various ways and degrees.

Another set of books, largely written during the intertestamental period , are called the biblical apocrypha "hidden things" by Protestants, the deuterocanon "second canon" by Catholics, and the deuterocanon or anagignoskomena "worthy of reading" by Orthodox.

These are works recognized by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Churches as being part of scripture and thus deuterocanonical rather than apocryphal , but Protestants do not recognize them as divinely inspired.

Orthodox differentiate scriptural books by omitting these and others from corporate worship and from use as a sole basis for doctrine.

Many denominations recognize deuterocanonical books as good, but not on the level of the other books of the Bible. Anglicanism considers the apocrypha worthy of being "read for example of life" but not to be used "to establish any doctrine.

The difference in canons derives from the difference in the Masoretic Text and the Septuagint. Books found in both the Hebrew and the Greek are accepted by all denominations, and by Jews, these are the protocanonical books.

Catholics and Orthodox also accept those books present in manuscripts of the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament with great currency among the Jews of the ancient world, with the coda that Catholics consider 3 Esdras and 3 Maccabees apocryphal.

Most quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament, differing by varying degrees from the Masoretic Text, are taken from the Septuagint. Daniel was written several hundred years after the time of Ezra, and since that time several books of the Septuagint have been found in the original Hebrew, in the Dead Sea Scrolls , the Cairo Geniza , and at Masada , including a Hebrew text of Sirach Qumran, Masada and an Aramaic text of Tobit Qumran ; the additions to Esther and Daniel are also in their respective Semitic languages.

The unanimous consensus of modern and ancient scholars consider several other books, including 1 Maccabees and Judith, to have been composed in Hebrew or Aramaic.

Some books listed here, like the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs for the Armenian Apostolic Church, may have once been a vital part of a Biblical tradition, may even still hold a place of honor, but are no longer considered to be part of the Bible.

Other books, like the Prayer of Manasseh for the Roman Catholic Church, may have been included in manuscripts, but never really attained a high level of importance within that particular tradition.

The levels of traditional prominence for others, like Psalms — and the Psalms of Solomon of the Syriac churches, remain unclear.

However, it is not always clear as to how these writings are arranged or divided. In some lists, they may simply fall under the title "Jeremiah", while in others, they are divided in various ways into separate books.

Moreover, the book of Proverbs is divided into two books—Messale Prov. Additionally, while the books of Jubilees and Enoch are fairly well known among western scholars, 1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan are not.

The three books of Meqabyan are often called the "Ethiopian Maccabees", but are completely different in content from the books of Maccabees that are known or have been canonized in other traditions.

Finally, the Book of Joseph ben Gurion, or Pseudo-Josephus , is a history of the Jewish people thought to be based upon the writings of Josephus.

Additional books accepted by the Syriac Orthodox Church due to inclusion in the Peshitta :. The Ethiopian Tewahedo church accepts all of the deuterocanonical books of Catholicism and anagignoskomena of Eastern Orthodoxy except for the four Books of Maccabees.

Protestants and Catholics [6] use the Masoretic Text of the Jewish Tanakh as the textual basis for their translations of the protocanonical books those accepted as canonical by both Jews and all Christians , with various changes derived from a multiplicity of other ancient sources such as the Septuagint , the Vulgate , the Dead Sea Scrolls , etc.

The Eastern Orthodox use the Septuagint translated in the 3rd century BCE as the textual basis for the entire Old Testament in both protocanonical and deuteroncanonical books—to use both in the Greek for liturgical purposes, and as the basis for translations into the vernacular.

The spelling and names in both the — Douay Old Testament and in the Rheims New Testament and the revision by Bishop Challoner the edition currently in print used by many Catholics, and the source of traditional Catholic spellings in English and in the Septuagint differ from those spellings and names used in modern editions that derive from the Hebrew Masoretic text.

The King James Version references some of these books by the traditional spelling when referring to them in the New Testament, such as "Esaias" for Isaiah.

In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations e. The order of the books of the Torah are universal through all denominations of Judaism and Christianity.

Among the various Christian denominations , the New Testament canon is a generally agreed-upon list of 27 books.

However, the way in which those books are arranged may vary from tradition to tradition. For instance, in the Slavonic, Orthodox Tewahedo, Syriac, and Armenian traditions, the New Testament is ordered differently from what is considered to be the standard arrangement.

However, those books are included in certain Bibles of the modern Syriac traditions. Other New Testament works that are generally considered apocryphal nonetheless appear in some Bibles and manuscripts.

For instance, the Epistle to the Laodiceans [note 5] was included in numerous Latin Vulgate manuscripts, in the eighteen German Bibles prior to Luther's translation, and also a number of early English Bibles, such as Gundulf's Bible and John Wycliffe's English translation—even as recently as , William Whiston considered this epistle to be genuinely Pauline.

Likewise, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians [note 6] was once considered to be part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, [99] but is no longer printed in modern editions.

Within the Syriac Orthodox tradition, the Third Epistle to the Corinthians also has a history of significance. Both Aphrahat and Ephraem of Syria held it in high regard and treated it as if it were canonical.

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